( G. Campbell Morgan 1863 - 1945 )

 

上一代英國釋經派出色的傳道人摩根,開始傳道的地方是在英國,但是,他在美國也贏得了同等的尊敬。他因沒有受過良好的學校教育,在他事業的起始時,就為循理會所拒:因此,他轉入公理宗,藉著他的講道及他的著作,他使每個教派都蒙福了。

 

從某一方面說,他的偉大,已使他無法屬於任何教派。一九零四年,他成為倫敦西敏寺教堂的牧師,那時西敏寺年久失修,成了公理會的大包袱,他上任不久,這座有二千五百座位的大教堂,以及兩個樓座都坐滿了人。據說,從清潔工人在地上撿到的鈕扣數目,就可看出人湧入教堂要搶先入座的熱烈情況。雖然,這種說法可能過分,但有的時候,教堂已經坐滿,他就在預定一小時以前開講了Ö。

 

冬天,每隔一週的星期二,他代鄰區的一位牧師講道,平均聽眾數目是一千七百人至二千人。星期三下午也與主日學教員一起研究星期日要講授的聖經課。西敏寺教堂的講台也經過改建,裝上了大黑板,以備他教授聖經課時用。黑板上有聽眾看不到的暗線,使他在黑板上畫線時能畫得直。摩根曾說:[我不是單為自己做的,而是要作一個教師;去幫助那些因為他們日常工作不能像傳道人用那樣多時間去研讀聖經的人。他用圖解、大綱、追求簡單、清楚與簡短,他說,傳道人是〝解釋者〞,要使聽的人可以明白。

 

摩根從未以單一教會為足。他在一週之中在英格蘭各地旅行講道,他用早晚的時間讀書,他的傳記中說:〝這遊行講道並未叫他站在講台上,面對聽眾時缺乏準備。這項準備常用其它方式做成,因為他早起晚睡。那些擠到教堂,為聖經的奇妙所感動,第一次,或以新方式,看見聖經信息之力量的人,對於摩根在半夜燈下的準備工作,則毫無所知。這位在講台上如此充滿活力的人,他們沒有看見他在清晨五時就在燈下在打開的聖經前作筆記了。他們也沒有看見他坐在馳過原野的火車車廂裏,他的心思默想著許多經文,探索、分析其中的真理,並尋求解釋。

 

在那個神學正進行大爭論的時代,他在西敏寺教堂的工作,對那些維護聖經基本信仰的人,正是一個堅強的堡壘。從一九一九至一九三二年,他旅行美國,在慕迪北野夏季聖經大會中扮演了一個主要的角色。在那幾年中,他只在家中停留過八個月。從一九二九至一九三二年,他擔任費城長老教會大教堂的牧師,但他仍然每週旅行到紐約及波士頓去講解聖經;一九三二年,他接受了急迫的召請。再次回到英國倫敦西敏寺教堂,會堂與會眾又再次需要重建,他看來是唯一能作成這大工的人。

 

對他說,講道,或說教導人聖經,講解闡釋聖經,永遠是一項快樂。是甚麼使他成為一個屬靈的偉人的呢?

 

他的日記一再記載:〝讀經整個上午〞,並且,他總是很晚才上床。年輕的傳道人問他成功的秘訣時,摩根博士回答說:〝努力工作,殷勤努力工作、工作。〞早晨六點鐘一過,他就到書房,好安靜地研讀聖經。人不可在上午打擾他,他是在研讀聖經。神對人講的話需要人專心去領受,而摩根博士就有這 份專心。

 

為他寫傳記的作家描寫他關心他聽眾的情形時說:〝這強有力的信息;這些專心的聽眾,講者與聽者之間完全合一的氣氛,乃是熱切專心,獻於〝我只有一件事〞傳道的結果。對摩根說,他無比的責任,以及他心上經常的擔子,乃是餵養主的羊群,他主日學中最小的羔羊,在他看來,與最成熟的學生同樣重要。

 

他在為聖經每卷書預備大綱時,在他提筆之前,他計畫先讀五十遍。他講到他一次坐下來讀完出埃及記全卷,這樣有四十遍之後,他才開始寫下一些釋經的注解。這些綱要及註釋,就構成了今天英文版的〝 The Analyzed Bible〞。

 

據說,他可隨時用聖經任何一章講一篇道,但是,他每次講道,卻總要用一小時作特別準備。他對聖經的一般準備是不斷的,濃厚的。〝我可以說,〞他說:〝我經常在火車上讀聖經。〞但是,地並非隱士,他十分喜愛與人接觸。他在慕迪的聖經大會中;下午的時間全用在社交及康樂活動;他總是成為人群中的核心,這時他並不與人討論深奧的道理,只是講一些有趣的故事,與人共度歡樂的時間。

 

西敏寺教堂的講台既專獻為解釋聖經,摩根為兒童所設立的主日學也是以聖經為中心就不足為怪了。這可讓我們看出,對摩根博土說,對所有年齡階段的人,研究聖經都是同樣的重要。

 

在他的計畫中,有四年的聖經初級課程,學生在這項課程中熟讀聖經中的故事,摩根博土發現,聖經中有一百五十個故事,適合五至八歲的孩子。九至十二歲少年階段,他說,特別對連環的故事有興趣。因此,他以聖經的傳記材料,為少年人編了一百五十三課聖經課。在那最艱難的十三至十六歲的年月階段,青春期的青少年正培植出人際關係的感覺。因此,研究聖經歷史可以引起他們的興趣。十六歲之後,青年人就可接受聖經中一些必須遲延的重要的教訓--以色列的律法、詩歌、大小先知的信息、耶穌的教訓,及使徒們的著作。

 

摩根如何使研讀聖經成為他一生專長的呢?在十六歲之前,他從未懷疑過聖經的權威。他身為浸禮會傳道人的兒子,他從未想過,任何誠實、受人尊敬的人,會懷疑聖經是神的話。

 

以後,他接受師資教育時,他聽到達爾文.赫胥黎、施賓塞等人,這些人的哲學在宗教界投下了陰影。〝到了一個時侯,我對甚麼都沒有確 信,〞他說,他 三年之久失去了信心,他在〝世俗的殿堂裏〞辯論新書中所講的題目,他的媳婦耶爾描寫他如何解決困難的情形說:

 

〝最後,危機臨到,他向自己承認,對聖經是否賦有神對人說話的權威,他完全失去了確信。他立即取消了一切講道約會。那時,他將他所有的書籍,攻擊聖經及為聖經辯護的書,全都放在屋角的櫃子裏。現在我聽到鎖的聲響,他說,他出去,到街上書店??,買了一本新聖經,帶著聖經回到家中,他對自己說:〝我已不再確信,這本聖經像父親所說那樣具有權威,是神的話,但是,有一件事我卻有把握,它若是神的話,我若是有開明的心思,不帶偏見的去讀它,它必會使我心靈獲得保證。聖經找到了我,〞他說:〝那時,一八八三年,我開始研讀聖經,自此,他人生的後五十年,沒有一年他不出版一兩本著作。他著作了七十本書,其中一些書是所有傳道人為了充實自己所必讀的書。讀它們就會得益處。其中的許多內容,進入道其他傳道人的講詞中。施韋.伯稱〝基督的危機〞一書,是摩根最偉大的著作。他的兩卷〝聖經中的活信息〞是釋經者的另一顆珠寶。〝路加福音〞、〝使徒行傳〞、〝偉大的醫生〞 都是神學中寶貴的著作。

 

摩根之成為偉大的傳道人,乃是因為他以神的話作課本。研究他的工作、他的嗜好、他的感情,他的偉大是由於他的這項習慣所造成的。

 

 

George Campbell Morgan (1863-1945)

 

††††††††† Introduction†††††

 

††††††††† The early 19th century produced a great wealth of Bible teachers and evangelists that are credited with

††††††††† initiating a new turn in the Lord's recovery of his testimony on the earth. Brothers such as John Nelson

††††††††† Darby, William Kelly, George Muller, D.L. Moody, Hudson Taylor, Andrew Murray, and A.B. Simpson

††††††††† pioneered a fresh move of the Lord that we benefit from until today. However, we should not forget the

††††††††† many great teachers that have carried this move of the Lord into the 20th century by building on what

††††††††† the Lord had done in the 19th century. Teachers such as D.M. Panton, Jesse Penn Lewis, G.H. Lang,

††††††††† Evan Roberts, A.W. Tozer, Cyrus Scofield, Billy Sunday, T. Austin Sparks, and M.E. Barber stood on

††††††††† the shoulders of those in the early part of the century and brought the Lord's work to a higher level. It is

††††††††† in this context that G. Campbell Morgan takes his place in church history. Although he is not credited

††††††††† with the opening up of great Biblical truths as the early Brethren were, he nevertheless expounded the

††††††††† Bible with fresh light and with an utterance in a class of its own. One can only imagine how inspiring it

††††††††† must have been to sit and listen to Morgan's expounding of the crises of Christ: how God designed the

††††††††† temptation of Jesus to "drag" Satan into the light to expose his personality and methods once for all; or

††††††††† how Jesus became the only man in human history to be "forsaken" by God. He drew thousands to love

††††††††† the Bible through his speaking at Westminster Chapel and his Biblical insights recorded in his books

††††††††† are popular among the Lordís seekers even today. His most popular works are "The Crises of the

††††††††† Christ," and the several volumes of "The Westminster Pulpit."†††††

 

††††††††† Spiritual men of the later 18th century have been described as being detached from social issues as

††††††††† well as society at large. A. W. Tozer retreated to his study immediately after his sermons because he

††††††††† did not care to have people with "diseased personalities" coming up to him to shake his hand. T Austin

††††††††† Sparks was a private person who usually kept to himself. Panton, Penn Lewis, Lang, etc., although

††††††††† articulate Bible teachers, did not leave behind a significant group of followers affected by their ministry

††††††††† as did earlier church leaders such as Darby, Taylor, and Simpson. G. Campbell Morgan invigorated the

††††††††† dying Westminster Chapel with his eloquent exposition of the Bible. However, soon after both of his

††††††††† resignations, the congregation quickly dwindled again. Could this have to do with his approach to his

††††††††† pastorship? His Biblical expositions gave profound insight into the revelation of the divine economy, but

††††††††† did not often allude to the subjective experience of the believer. One has to wonder if the liberal social

††††††††† gospel of the 20th century that was geared only to reach out to meet human needs was a reaction to

††††††††† the spiritual men at the turn of the century who appeared detached from the common man. However,

††††††††† this should not take away from the powerful influence he has had on Bible students of every

††††††††† persuasion.††††

 

††††††††† G. Campbell Morganís writings have profound insight, are unique in utterance and are unparalleled in

††††††††† expression. He rarely quoted other Bible teachers, neither did he rely on light others received. Yet his

††††††††† Biblical expositions are so thought-provoking and inspiring that one cannot help but be left in awe of

††††††††† what this brother received from the Word. The Lord Jesus gave Morgan a special revelation to bring

††††††††† Godís people into fellowship with Himself by being nourished and enlightened through the enjoyment of

††††††††† the Bible. We must appreciate and learn from our brother, G. Campbell Morgan, how he brought into the

††††††††† Lordís recovery the way to dig out the unsearchable riches of Christ found in His Holy Word.

 

††††††††† Biographical Sketch

††††††††† Early Years†††††

 

††††††††† G. Campbell Morgan was the son of a Baptist minister. His home was one of such genuine piety that in

††††††††† later years he wrote: "While my father could not compel me to be a Christian, I had no choice because

††††††††† of what he did for me and what I saw in him." He received an excellent education at Gratton house, "The

††††††††† Douglas School for Young Gentlemen," but never earned any academic degree. When Campbell was 10

††††††††† years old, D.L. Moody came to England for the first time, and the effect of his ministry, combined with

††††††††† the dedication of his parents, made such an impression on the life of young Morgan, that at the age of

††††††††† 13, he preached his first sermon. Two years later, he was preaching regularly in country chapels during

††††††††† his Sundays and holidays. Although he had no formal training for the ministry, his tireless devotion to

††††††††† the study of the Bible helped him to become a prominent Bible teacher of his day. In 1886, at the age of

††††††††† 23, he left the teaching profession, for which he had been trained, and began devoting his full time to the

††††††††† ministry of the Word of God. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1890, having been

††††††††† rejected by the Wesleyan Methodists two years before.

 

††††††††† Association with D.L. Moody†††††

 

††††††††† Morgan worked with Moody and Sankey in their evangelistic tour of Great Britain in 1883. His reputation

††††††††† as preacher and Bible expositor soon encompassed England and spread to the United States. In 1896,

††††††††† D.L. Moody invited him to give a lecture to the students at the Moody Bible Institute. This was the first

††††††††† of his 54 crossings of the Atlantic to minister the Word. After the death of Moody in 1899, Morgan

††††††††† assumed the position of director of the Northfield Bible Conference. The many thousands of converts

††††††††† from the ministry of Moody needed a teacher of the Bible to strengthen and deepen their faith. G.

††††††††† Campbell Morgan became that teacher.

 

††††††††† Pastorate at Westminster Chapel, London†††††

 

††††††††† In 1840 the area where Westminster Chapel now stands was relatively undeveloped. It was an unhealthy

††††††††† poverty stricken slum - perhaps the worst in England. Since that time the area has improved

††††††††† considerably and historic attractions such as Buckingham Palace and Westminster Abbey bring

††††††††† millions of tourists to the area each year. Prior to the arrival of Dr R T Kendall in 1976, Westminster

††††††††† Chapel had three particularly famous pastors: the Revíd Samuel Martin (142-1878), G Campbell Morgan

††††††††† (1904-1917 & 1933-1943) and Dr D Martyn Lloyd-Jones (1939-1968).†††††

 

††††††††† The Congregationalists wanted a stronger Christian witness in the area. The impetus came from the

††††††††† Regent Street Chapel and the means from the Metropolis Chapel Building Association who built a

††††††††† Chapel in Buckingham Gate on the site of the third Westminster Hospital. The building, seating 1,500

††††††††† and with 22 members opened on 6 May 1841.††††

 

††††††††† Such was the diligence and success of the first pastor, Samuel Martin, that by 1860 the church building

††††††††† could not accommodate the expanding membership. On July 6, 1865 the present building, seating

††††††††† 2,500, was opened (on the same site)††††

 

††††††††† During the early years of this century Westminster Chapel became known as the white elephant of

††††††††† Congregationalism. Many gifted men were approached about the pulpit vacancy but none appeared

††††††††† interested. Serious consideration was given to selling the site and using the proceeds to build smaller

††††††††† churches away from the center of London.††††

 

††††††††† Under Godís providence, when the situation was most critical, George Campbell Morgan accepted the

††††††††† challenge and the call to Westminster Chapel. He began his ministry on the last Sunday of October

††††††††† 1904. Morgan was a gifted preacher and teacher; he was a schoolmaster before ordination, with a tall

††††††††† imposing presence and perfect speaking voice. He was a Congregationalist by persuasion and was

††††††††† well-known in England. He brought his friend , Albert Swift, as a co-pastor.††††

 

††††††††† Morgan had well-planned organization, Bible-centered preaching and teaching, meaningful weekday and

††††††††† Sunday activities and services, and excellent cooperation of people. He was in charge of the preaching

††††††††† and teaching while Swift supervised the Sunday School and youth work. A sisterhood visited the poor

††††††††† and sick. Mr. Alfred Hewitt was a full-time evangelist. A Friday night Bible school was instituted (Friday

††††††††† was chosen because few other churches had Friday evening meetings) and it became the forerunner of

††††††††† the present-day Westminster Chapel School of Theology. The first edition of the Westminster Record

††††††††† appeared in January 1905, founded by Morgan and edited by him and Swift. Tithing for missionary work

††††††††† began then and has continued ever since. His preaching and his weekly Friday night Bible classes

††††††††† attracted thousands. Morgan proved himself to be an administrator of rare abilityóreorganizing,

††††††††† renovating, and skillfully raising funds. The deteriorating structure of the Westminster Chapel was

††††††††† repaired and soon Westminster became a spiritual dynamo in the teeming metropolis.†††††

 

††††††††† Soon after arrival at Westminster Morgan established the Mundesley Bible Conference, a "British

††††††††† Northfield" which drew to its annual conferences eminent ministers and Christian workers from the

††††††††† various denominations and from several countries. Mundesley became a vital part of Westminster

††††††††† Chapel.†††††

 

††††††††† Albert Swift left the Chapel in 1907. Dr Morgan continued bravely without his beloved friend. The First

††††††††† World War (1914-18) increased Morgan's considerable work load and after a debilitating illness at the

††††††††† beginning of 1916, to the dismay of the membership, Morgan announced his resignation from the

††††††††† Chapel. When his health revived, he moved to America - but he was destined to return.††††

 

††††††††† In 1928 Dr Hubert Simpson assumed the pastorate but he was a sick man, still suffering from the

††††††††† effects of the First World War. Dr Simpson's writings reveal a sensitive man who had been under great

††††††††† stress as a chaplain to a Guards Brigade in France and later as chaplain to a war hospital.††††

 

††††††††† Finding the Westminster Chapel so difficult, he approached Campbell Morgan who happened to be

††††††††† attending a conference in England, with a view to his sharing the Westminster pastorate. In 1933 the

††††††††† new partnership began but Dr. Simpson was soon forced to retire completely. With the retirement of the

††††††††† pastor so ended Morgan's formal association with the Chapel but he continued to minister and a few

††††††††† years later was formally inducted as the minister once again.††††

 

††††††††† Morgan was well aware of the hazards of a second pastorate with the same fellowship and

††††††††† acknowledged this at the church meeting. The character of his second term differed from his first. There

††††††††† was less emphasis on social activities. This reflected, in part, the improving conditions in the area but

††††††††† undoubtedly the main influence was the changing attitudes within Evangelical circles. Howard H.

††††††††† Rowden of the London Bible College opens his essay on Morgan's old friend, Albert Swift, with this

††††††††† telling observation: "It is one of the minor curiosities of recent church history that evangelical

††††††††† Protestants, who provided some of the leading activists of the 19th Century, had, by the middle of the

††††††††† 20th Century, gained the reputation of being socially aloof and even opposed to Christian involvement in

††††††††† almost any kind of social or political action" (Albert Swift: A Social Gospeller at Westminster

††††††††† Chapel?)††††

 

††††††††† The church buildings were renovated and enlarging congregations returned. The wonderful voice, the

††††††††† logical exposition, sustained the large congregation, but the physical strain became more noticeable as

††††††††† the years went by. It was spiritual inspiration when he asked Dr D Martyn Lloyd-Jones, a young minister

††††††††† from South Wales, to come to help him.

 

††††††††† Ministry in the United States†††††

 

††††††††† During his first pastorate at Westminster, Morgan made many, almost annual trips to America. In 1916

††††††††† he resigned from Westminster Chapel to do itinerant preaching. Between 1919 and 1932 traveled widely

††††††††† in evangelistic and preaching tours in the United States. Many thousands of people heard him preach in

††††††††† nearly every state and Canada. For a year (1927-1928) he served on the faculty of the Bible Institute of

††††††††† Los Angeles, and for a year (1930-1931) he was a Bible lecturer at Gordon College of Theology and

††††††††† Missions in Boston. Between 1929 and 1932 he was pastor of the Tabernacle Presbyterian Church in

††††††††† Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His appeal was phenomenal. Often when he spoke, the crowds were so

††††††††† large that police control was necessary.

 

††††††††† Life Work†† †††

 

††††††††† His paramount contribution to the Christian faith lay in teaching the Bible and showing people how to

††††††††† study it for themselves. Superbly gifted, he dedicated his insight and eloquence to a single objective:

††††††††† communicating God's truth with scholarly integrity, rhetorical lucidity, and arresting relevance. Morgan

††††††††† published over 60 books and booklets, many of which are still available today.

 

††††††††† (The above is a compilation of excerpts from several Internet sites, Chronology of ministers by Miss

††††††††† Dorothy Thompson, a forward by Vernon G. Grounds, and The Wycliffe Biographical Dictionary of the

††††††††† Church, by Elgin S. Moyer)

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††